Maternal Depression Screening
Bright Futures encouraged pediatricians to take additional steps to support families during the routine well-child visits. Because "maternal psychological distress is likely to go unrecognized and untreated by a mother's own health care provider", pediatricians are often in a better position to deal with problems impacting the family by dealing with the mothers' of their young patients. [Silver: 2006] The pediatrician can effectively screen for maternal depression. [Onunaku: 2005]
As more information is learned about infant mental health, more attention is being given to strengthening the bond between the mother and child. Maternal depression can significantly affect that bond and place the infant at risk for delays in social and emotional development.
- Post partum depression
- Maternal psychological stress
- Postnatal depression
- Baby blues (term generally for very mild and transient forms of maternal depression)
- Post partum psychosis (term generally reserved for very severe forms of maternal depression)
- Lack of enjoyment of usual activities;
- sleeping more;
- avoidance of social situations including daily activities of grocery shopping and taking children to school;
- seclusion from family;
- neglect of the newborn infant or other children; and
- self-inflicted injuries.
296.2, Major depressive disorder single episode
296.3, Major depressive disorder recurrent episode
296.82, Atypical depressive disorder
300.4, Dysthymic disorder
309.0, Adjustment reaction with adjustment disorder with depressed mood
309.1, Adjustment reaction with prolonged depressive reaction
309.28, Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood
311, Depressive disorder not elsewhere classified
648.4, Mental disorders complicating pregnancy/childbirth
Code 296.2 includes codes 296.2-296.25, and code 296.3 includes codes 296.30-296.35. [Dietz: 2007]
Description: A 9-question screening tool for depression. Sensitivity=88%; specificity=88%. [Kroenke: 2001]
Source: Can be downloaded in pdf format from the MacArthur Initiative on depression Depression Tool Kit (MacArthur Foundation Initiative on Depression and Primary Care), (see Appendix I). Can also be downloaded in English and several other languages from the Pfizer Inc. site, www.phqscreeners.com; scoring instructions can be downloaded separately from the same page. Free, may be printed without permission.
Description: A 2-question version of the PHQ-9. Sensitivity=96%; specificity=57%. [Thibault: 2004]
Source: Can be downloaded in English directly from the Utah Department of Health, Patient Health Questionnaire 2(). The two questions are: 1) During the past month, have you often been bothered by feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? and 2) During the past month, have you often been bothered by little interest or pleasure in doing things? If the answer to either is "yes" the screen is positive. Free, may be printed without permission.
Description: A validated, quick, 10-question screening tool for maternal depression to be used by primary care providers and includes scoring instructions. Sensitivity 65-100%; specificity 49-100%. [Eberhard-Gran: 2001]
Source: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale link provided by the University of California San Francisco Fresno. Free, may be printed without permission.
- Evaluate the infant using a social-emotional screening tool;
- Evaluate the infant for poor feeding;
- Evaluate the mother to determine the severity of the maternal depression; and
- Refer the mother to a mental health professional for further assessment and evaluation.
Medicaid Information Bulletin, 2006( 165 KB)
This bulletin contains recommended depression screening tools for Utah Medicaid Providers, when to use the tools, and links to the tools including the 9-question Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburg, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Family Psychosocial Screen (FPS).
Depression Tool Kit (MacArthur Foundation Initiative on Depression and Primary Care)
Designed for primary care practices to help in the diagnosis and management of maternal depression; contains screening tools, patient handouts, medication information, resources, and references and includes the 9-question Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Available for download upon agreement to terms.
Utah Reproductive Health Program
This program, within the Utah Department of Health, provides information; newsletters; tools; handouts; posters; and links for women, families, and providers about reproductive health issues.
Maternal Depression Poster( 90 KB)
Includes two screening questions and description of postpartum depression.
Post Partum Depression and the Family Poster( 65 KB)
Describes postpartum depression and how it affects the family.
See all Child Psychiatry services providers (17) in our database.
See all Mental Health Clinics, Public services providers (25) in our database.
For other services related to this condition, browse our Services categories or search our database.
|Author:||Kathleen Smart, LCSW - 9/2006|
|Contributing Author:||Alfred Romeo, RN, PhD - 11/2013|
|Content Last Updated:||5/2008|
Dietz PM, Williams SB, Callaghan WM, Bachman DJ, Whitlock EP, Hornbrook MC.
Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.
Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(10):1515-20. PubMed abstract / Full Text
Eberhard-Gran M, Eskild A, Tambs K, Opjordsmoen S, Samuelsen SO.
Review of validation studies of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104(4):243-9. PubMed abstract
Improving maternal and infant mental health: Focus on maternal depression.
National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy at UCLA. July. / http://main.zerotothree.org/site/DocServer/maternaldep.pdf
Silver EJ, Heneghan AM, Bauman LJ, Stein RE.
The relationship of depressive symptoms to parenting competence and social support in inner-city mothers of young children.
Matern Child Health J. 2006;10(1):105-12. PubMed abstract